Indian cities have limited authority when it comes to critical functions and services like sanitation and water supply as these functions haven’t been devolved by states
On an average, only 9 of the 18 functions listed under the 74th Constitution Amendment Act have been devolved to Urban Local Bodies
As cities are complex systems, local governments need to work collaboratively with experts, civil society, academia and media to strengthen inclusive service delivery. Delivery of sanitation requires strong political leadership, human resource, spatial planning, innovative technology and active citizen participation. This can be achieved through long-term capacity building efforts.